Global warming is the increase in the average air temperature close to the earth's surface for the last one or two centuries. Climate scientists have gathered data after observation since the mid-20th century of various weather-related phenomena. The data collected indicate that there have been alterations in the earth's climate. Are we doing Anything About it? To address the increasing conviction of the people/community concerned about climate change and global warming, the WMO, the World Meteorological Organization, UNEP, or United Nations Environment Program formed 1988 the IPCC or the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. What are the Causes of Global Warming? Let us find out Global warming causes and effects. We know that there have been upheavals in climate over time. And as mentioned above, the average air temperature near the surface has been increasing. But rising temperatures is not the only reason for the adverse change in climatic conditions. Global warming is attributed to human activities. These include the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide, emitted from greenhouse gases, keeps the atmosphere warm. Aside from the above, burning fossil fuels to generate energy releases carbon dioxide. The atmosphere can trap heat released from greenhouse gases resulting in the greenhouse effect. More and more forests are decreasing, so these spaces can make space for concrete forests and industries. Rising livestock and growing rice is producing methane. Releasing CFC into the air from the industrial use of various products is another reason for global warming. Effects of Global Warming There are plenty of effects of global warming. The rising average temperatures near the earth's surface have adversely impacted us. \tSea ice and glaciers have melted, causing an increase in the level of water in oceans by 3mm annually. There has been a rapid increase in sea level, and scientific methods anticipate that by 2100 there will be a rise in sea level by 30 cm. \tAccording to researchers, there is a 66% chance of surpassing the 1.5C global warming threshold from now on and by 2027. \tDue to the various human activities mentioned above, there will likely be an El Nino effect and weather pattern towards the end of this year. \tOther global warming effects include extreme weather conditions, and many animal and coral reef species struggle to survive. Migration to suitable terrains by fauna. What does Surpassing the 1.5C Threshold Mean? Once the threshold is reached, the world has become warmer by 1.5C compared to what it was in the latter part of the 19th century, much before the incidence of emissions from fossil fuels and industrialization struck roots. Moreover, if the figure is attained, it also means that global warming has not been arrested but is progressing. This is a cause for serious concern. Figure 1.5C is a symbol that indicates climate change negotiations globally. Countries have agreed to put in efforts to limit the progress of reaching the threshold as per the Paris Agreement of 2015. So only the collective effort of all the humans on earth can control global warming. No single nation, organization, world leader or individual can prevent global warming. It will take a real collective effort. Further Reading \t Causes of Global Warming \t How Climate Change is Changing Your and Your Children's Future? \t How does Climate Change Affect Animals?